Archiv für den Monat: September 2016

GPS Vehicle Tracking Device for greater energy efficiency

Problems related to the single, isolated automotive vehicle and its subsystems are challenging enough (see the grand challenge on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems), but the research community is also exploring the “big picture” of intelligent road transportation – the system, or system of systems, consisting of many vehicles and their drivers interacting on roads. Two related topics are included in this vision: Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) interaction and Vehicle-to-vehicle (GSM GPS Tracker ) interaction. In Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) concept, the infrastructure plays a coordination role by gathering global or local information on traffic and road conditions and then suggesting or imposing certain behaviors on a group of vehicles. One example is ramp metering, already widely used, which requires limited sensors and actuators (measurements of traffic density on a highway and traffic lights on ramps).

Contrarily, nomadic systems are generally introduced inside vehicles by their own drivers and one of the characteristics that distinguish this type of system is the fact that they can be used for besides the driving context. They can be activated in different situations and with different aims because these equipments can include also Phone GPS Tracker functions, access to the internet, and electronic agenda, among several other utilities. Concerning the manmachine interaction in a road environment, nomadic systems are similar to systems fitted as standard to the vehicle as they allow the transmission of audio and written messages that can help drivers guide themselves through the road network. However, the way they are positioned and attached inside the vehicle can be considerably different. Unlike the fitted as standard systems, nomadic devices are placed according to drivers‟ wish. This aspect can foresee two problems: the first is related with the proper positioning of the system and consequently with the efficiency on the acquisition of messages; the second is a safety concern as in case of accident the system can be loose and hurt the driver.

In a more sophisticated scenario, the velocities and accelerations of vehicles and intervehicle distances would be suggested by the infrastructure on the basis of traffic conditions, with the goal of optimizing overall emissions, fuel consumption, and traffic velocities. Suggestions to vehicles could be broadcast to drivers via road displays or directly to vehicles via wireless connections. Looking further ahead, in some cases suggestions could be integrated into the vehicle controls and implemented semi automatically (always taking onto account the restrictions on automatic vehicle driving imposed by the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic). V2I promise revolutionary improvements in transportation – greater energy efficiency, less road construction, reduced collisions, and safety of vehicle occupants as well as pedestrians and bicyclists. Control is a key contributing discipline for both topics. Some experts predict that the first V2I systems may be developed and deployed in the 2015- 2020 time frame. A lot of infrastructure technologies and processes are already known, some already developed, interesting and promising ideas appear and research initiatives have been undertaken. The Rear View Mirror With GPS , charging devices in car parks, filling stations for hydrogen, gas and renewable fuels, logistics and services, information systems for users, traffic management are only some infrastructure needs for new research, development and implementation.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .






High-sensitivity Wireless GPS Tracking Device

MEMS stands for microelectromechanical systems, and describes a range of sensors formed by the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate. While the electronics are fabricated using traditional integrated circuit (IC) processes (for example, Rear View Mirror With Camera ), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible micromachining processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices. The MEMS sensors of interest are accelerometers, rate gyros, and altimeters. These are available in low cost silicon today (for example, many phones and cameras use MEMS accelerometers so that they know which way the screen is oriented). The characteristics of these sensors are exactly complementary to GPS. The MEMS sensors measure change in position quite accurately for the short term, but they have almost unbounded long-term drift, whereas GPS may have large shortterm errors, but has no long term drift.

Most of the standards-based protocols were initially developed for single frequency code-phase GPS L1 handsets. Recently, more signals have been added to GPS and other GNSSs have been replenished and proposed. In order to be backwardly compatible with existing handset implementations, a new classification of assistance data and measurements was added to the protocols as a separate information element. This new classification is known as Galileo and Additional Navigation Satellite Systems (Small GPS Tracking Device ). It is used to define assistance data and measurements for the other GNSSs and SBASs as well as modernized GPS. One of the problems of high-sensitivity receivers is that they will acquire and track signals that are not direct line-of-sight signals, but instead are pure reflections. This is common when indoors and especially common when outdoors in a city with large buildings. There are many studies on GPS multipath, but beware to distinguish between two-ray multipath and pure reflections, discussed more in the following paragraphs.

The direct line-of-sight signal will often be attenuated by much more than the 35-dB dynamic range of a good A-GPS receiver. (A signal passing through several office blocks may be attenuated by about 10-dB per wall, thus the net attenuation of the direct signal may be well above 100 dB.) At the same time, there may be reflected signals from the same satellite that are fairly strong and easily acquired. The receiver will acquire the reflected signals, but the pseudorange that is measured will be wrong by the extra path length caused by whatever the signal reflected from. This pseudorange error can easily be of the order of 100m, and if nothing is done about it, it will lead to a position error of a similar magnitude. Since the early commercial Personal Tracker industry was heavily influenced by highprecision survey and mapping applications, there has been much research on GPS multipath. But the multipath that has been studied is mostly two-ray multipath, in which the direct and reflected signals are both present at the antenna. The problem faced by high-sensitivity GPS is not so much two-ray multipath, in which there is a longer delay from the reflected path, but rather pure reflections in the absence of a detectable direct signal. There has recently been an increase in attention paid to the urban canyon problem. See, for example,though the focus is still mostly on two-ray multipath.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .






Rear View Mirror GPS DVR for monitoring and long-term storage

The very few components in CCTV that, only a half a dozen years ago, used digital video were the framestores, quad compressors, multiplexers, and the internal circuits of the digital signal processing (Smart Rear View Mirror ) cameras. Today, we can freely say that the majority of new installations, though still working with analog cameras, use digital video recorders for monitoring and long-term storage. Camera quality is an important starting point in the CCTV system video chain, but the quality of the recorded images and its intelligent processing have become equally important. The very few components in CCTV that, only a half a dozen years ago, used digital video were the framestores, quad compressors, multiplexers, and the internal circuits of the digital signal processing (DSP) cameras. Today, we can freely say that the majority of new installations, though still working with analog cameras, use digital video recorders for monitoring and long-term storage. Camera quality is an important starting point in the CCTV system video chain, but the quality of the recorded images and its intelligent processing have become equally important. The other important recording technique we use in CCTV is the multiplexed recording.

With digital CCTV, we tend to mimic what was done in the days of multiplexed recording when we used multiplexers and Wireless GPS Tracker. So a typical CCTV digital video recorder (DVR) in actual fact is a multiplexer and digital recorder in one. In such products, image compression (as opposed to video compression) would be more convenient as it compresses TV frames or fields treating them as still images, without regard for which camera comes before or after the compressed one. Some would argue that the disadvantages of image compressions used in multiplexing DVRs are that they end up as relatively large image files (typically, 30 kB – 60 kB per TV field, for a good image quality), but the pros are that each such image is an independent entity and can be reconstructed on its own without the need for other images before or after it to be available. For some legal cases this might be the preferred compression because of such independence. This is not to say that video compressions cannot stand the court of law, but it is only the interpretation of the argument that video compressions uses reconstruction based on past and future reference images.

With image compressions it is possible to have image rates much lower than the live rate of 25 frames/second (29.97 for NTSC), making the most of the available hard drive storage space. If we add to this the motion detection capability, which most of the multiplexed DVRs use, we get a superior successor to the MUX+VCR combination. This is why it is possible to have multiple cameras recorded on one Wireless IP Camera , each with at least a couple of images per second recording rate, and achieve storage capacities of several days, weeks, and maybe months. This was unthinkable only 5 to 10 years ago. In recorders where we want to achieve the highest possible video quality or highest possible recording or transmission rate, temporal compression is better suited as it makes use of the redundancy of a video signal over time. It does require, however, a continuous signal of the same camera for maximum efficiency.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .






GPS Tracking Devices data processing can be performed directly

A by-product of the above equivalence discussions is that the Car GPS Tracker data processing can be performed directly by using the so-called secondary observations. Besides the two ambiguity parameters, the other two secondary observations are the electronic density in the observing path and the geometry. The geometry includes the whole observation model except the ionosphere and ambiguity terms. For a time series of the secondary “observations”, the electron density and the “geometry” are real time observations, whereas the “ambiguities” are constants in case no cycle-slip occurs. Sequential adjustment or filtering methods can be used to deal with the observation time series. It is notable that the secondary “observations” are correlated with each other. However, the “ambiguities” are direct observations of the ambiguity parameters. The “ambiguity” observables are ionosphere-geometry-free. The “ionosphere” observable is geometry-free and ambiguity-free.

The “geometry” observable is ionosphere-free. It is notable that some algorithms may be more effective; however, the results and the precisions of the solutions are equivalent no matter which algorithms are used. The problem concerning the parameterisation of the GPS Tracking Device observation model will not affect the conclusions of the discussions and will be further discussed in Chap. 9. Equivalence of Undifferenced and Differencing Algorithms In Sect. 6.6 the single, double and triple differences as well as their related observation equations are discussed. The number of unknown parameters in the equations is greatly reduced through difference forming; however, the covariance derivations are tedious, especially for a GPS network. In this section, a unified GPS data processing method based on equivalently eliminated equations is proposed and the equivalence between undifferenced and differencing algorithms is proved. The theoretic background of the method is given. By selecting the eliminated unknown vector as a vector of zero, a vector of satellite clock error, a vector of all clock error, a vector of clock and ambiguity parameters, or a vector of user-defined unknowns, the selectively eliminated equivalent observation equations can be formed, respectively. The equations are equivalent to the zero-, single-, double-, triple-, or user-defined differencing equations.

The advantage of such a method is that the different GPS Phone Tracker data processing methods are unified to a unique one, whereas the observational vector remains the original one and the weight matrix keeps the un-correlated diagonal form. In other words, by using this equivalent method, one may selectively reduce the unknown number; however, one does not have to deal with the complicated correlation problem. Several special cases of single-, double-, and triple-difference are discussed in detail to illustrate the theory. The reference-related parameters are dealt with using the a priori datum method. In the next sections, the theoretical basis of the equivalently eliminated equations will be given based on the derivation of Zhou (1985). Several detailed cases are then discussed to illustrate the theory. The reference-related parameters are dealt with using the a priori datum method. A summary of the selectively eliminated equivalent GPS data processing method is outlined at the end.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .

Inverted GPS Tracking Devices technique

Use of GPS receivers as an onboard real-time attitude sensor has been considered for other spacecraft, including OAST Flyer, Gemstar, REX-II, Orbcomm, SSTI Lewis, SSTI Clark, and the previously mentioned GLOBALSTAR. An alternative method of attitude determination has been demonstrated for spinning satellites, where a single antenna element is used and the observed cyclic variation in the Doppler offset on the GPS satellite signals is exploited to estimate the current attitude, with an accuracy in the order of 2–3°. As previously outlined, an Earth satellite collecting GNSS ( Alarm Camera GSM ) data with an onboard receiver can compute its state in terms of position and velocity. This can be performed in different ways, depending in part on the type of orbit and mission. Tracking and navigation requirements can include: real-time state knowledge and active control during launch and orbit insertion as well as during reentry and landing; real-time relative navigation between vehicles during rendezvous; autonomous station-keeping and near-real-time orbit knowledge for operations and orbit maintenance; rapid postmaneuver orbit recovery; and after-the-fact precise orbit determination for scientific analysis.

Orbit accuracy requirements range from hundreds of meters (or more) to a few centimeters. Among the existing tracking systems, only GPS currently meets the most stringent of these needs for the most dynamically unpredictable vehicles. The GPS signal beam-widths extend about 3,000 km beyond the Earth limb, enabling an Earth orbiter below that altitude to receive continuous three-dimensional coverage. Above 3,000 km, an orbiter begins to lose coverage from Portable GPS Tracking . However, because the dynamic model error can be small at high altitude, the dynamic orbit solution can remain strong. By looking downward to catch the signal spillover from satellites on the other side of the Earth, an orbiter can exploit GPS from well above the GPS satellites themselves, out to geosynchronous altitude and beyond. As an alternative, high satellites can carry GPS-like beacons to be tracked from the ground, with GPS satellites serving as reference points (inverted GPS technique).

Because the preferred tracking modes and solution techniques differ from low and high orbiters, the application to highly elliptical orbiters (HEO), which may descend to a few hundred kilometers and rise to tens of thousands, is particularly challenging: up- and down-looking GPS combined with ground-based Doppler during the high altitude phase can provide a particularly strong coverage. Real-time techniques belong to the direct GPS orbit determination, where only GPS data collected by the orbiter are used in the solution. As an alternative, for precise after-the-fact solutions, a differential GPS approach is proper, where data collected at multiple ground sites are combined with onboard data to reduce major errors. The potential of GPS to provide accurate and autonomous satellite orbit determination was noted in its early development. Direct Rearview Mirror Camera -based tracking has been investigated by identifying applications from near Earth to beyond geosynchronous altitudes, GPS tracking of the space shuttle, autonomous near Earth navigation, comparison of GPS, and NASA’s tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) for onboard navigation. The first reported results from orbital application of direct GPS tracking have been those of the NASA’s Landsat-4 experiment, which achieved about 20-m accuracy during the quite short windows of satisfactory GPS visibility.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .

CCTV security system – GSM Security Alarm Camera

The effectiveness of the CCTV system compared with its low investment cost attests to its widespread use. This chapter provides design guidelines and hardware information, specific case studies, and a checklist for representative security applications. The institutions, facilities, and surveillance areas cover a wide range. With respect to contamination of the signal cable by power-line voltage transient surges, the signal and power cables use separate shielded cables or conduits to avoid this problem. A general practice is to shield the signal cables with solid foil or stranded shielding to prevent external electrical noise from reaching the signal cable conductors. In larger Home Security Cameras installations, the security equipment is powered with a parallel network. In more complex installations where several parallel power-line paths are used, or where equipment is located in different buildings or receiving power from different parts of the electric utility grid, the voltages may vary appreciably between different power distribution lines. There is a choice of AC or DC power in the form of power line, power converters, batteries, and solar panels for powering all equipment necessary for any CCTV security application.

Distribution and ground loop problems should not be attacked with “black magic” fixes because these solutions tend to be temporary, and often create other chronic problems. A thoughtful examination of each current-demanding element in the system and its effect on the overall distribution network is far more valuable than a dozen quick fixes. Improper grounding and shielding of power and signal lines is a major cause of noise interference in sensitive electronic equipment. Improper grounding occurs primarily because equipment designers often forget that every conductor to ground has resistance, inductance, and shunt capacitance. Moreover, when the ground conductors form so-called ground loops, they can inject, radiate, or pick up both low- and high-frequency interference. agencies, (2) retail stores, (3) correctional institutions. banking facilities, and (5) lodging and casino establishments. When designing a Wireless Home Monitor , the equipment chosen depends on whether it will be used indoors or outdoors. In indoor applications such as lobbies, stairwells, stockrooms, elevators, or computer rooms, minimum environmental protection is required. The equipment may be required to operate under wide variations in light level if it is to be used for daytime and nighttime surveillance.

All the previous chapters have served as a basis for understanding the design requirements and hardware available to implement a practical CCTV security system. This chapter defines the hardware required and questions to ask (which must be answered) for several real cases. Each case states the problem and provides the information leading to a solution. A layout of the security problem identifies equipment locations and system requirements. A detailed block diagram serves to identify the functions, define the hardware requirements, and uncover potential problems. Each case solution includes a bill of materials (BOM) to define and choose the hardware. The BOM also serves as a basis for a request for quotation or a quotation from a vendor. GSM Security Alarm Camera is used extensively to train security personnel in all aspects of security. It is a convenient, cost-effective, and powerful visual tool to acquaint new personnel with the physical facilities, the management, security, and safety procedures. An ingredient in the successful implementation and effective operation of any security system is a professional installer or installing company, as well as continued maintenance of the system.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/

High-precision GPS Tracking Devices measurements

Initial position is provided in cellular networks by using a database of cell IDs linked to positions. Each cell tower has a cell ID, which is used by the cellular network to facilitate handoffs as the mobile phone moves from one tower to the next. An A-GPS system makes use of a database that links cell ID to the location of the cell tower. While every cell tower will broadcast a cell ID, it is not an inherent property of cellular networks that the location of the towers is available. For an A-GPS system to be implemented across a network, a database of locations has to be created and maintained. Sometimes this is done by the network operator, but it is also done by third parties. An A-GPS reference station comprises at least a GPS receiver that receives and decodes the broadcast satellite navigation data ( Rear View Mirror Camera ) and a computer that converts the data into industry-standard formats.

Commercial A-GNSS reference stations existed that comprised combined GPS+GLONASS+SBAS receivers, the operational GNSS systems available at that time. In the future, we expect to see A-GNSS reference stations that have one or several receivers to collect the data from all operational GNSS satellites, including Galileo, IRNSS, Compass, and QZSS. Commercial A-GNSS reference stations are usually situated in cities where there is good communication infrastructure to the networks that they serve. The reference stations are usually deployed so that their antennas have a clear view of the sky. Before May 2000, the GPS signals had deliberate errors on them. This was known as selective availability (SA), and led to position errors of up to 100m. At this stage, it was standard industry practice that any A-GPS reference station would also serve as a differential GPS (GPS Rear View Mirror ) reference station and thus would be located in the same region as the A-GPS receivers that it supported.

However, on May 1, 2000, SA was stopped by a presidential order from President Bill Clinton. This may be the single most significant moment in the history of GPS, since the launch of the first satellite in 1978. Without SA, the broadcast ephemeris provides the satellite orbit and clock data to accuracies of the order of 1m. (Remember, when we say clock accuracy to 1m, we mean the accuracy of the clock in units of time multiplied by the speed of light, so 1m of clock accuracy is approximately 3 ns.) One result of the removal of SA is that an entire industry of portable car-navigation systems has arisen. But the significance for A-GPS is that an A-GPS reference station does not also have to serve as a DGPS reference station. The idea of regional A-GPS reference stations went away and was replaced by the concept of worldwide reference networks. In May 2000, a global network of GPS reference stations was coordinated by the International GNSS Service, formerly the International GPS Service (GPS Phone Tracker ), and still exists today. This network comprises GPS and GPS+GLONASS reference stations for Earth-science research. For example, one of the participants in IGS is the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center, with the role of supporting high-precision GPS measurements, particularly for the study of earthquake hazards and tectonic plate motion.

Digital technology – about Rear View Mirror GPS DVR

All of the discussions in this blog so far have involved PAL and NTSC television standards, which refer to analog video signals. The majority of CCTV systems today would still have analog cameras, even though an increased number of manufacturers offer digital video (IP) cameras designed to “stream” video over network. The very few components in CCTV that, only a half a dozen years ago, used digital video were the framestores, quad compressors, multiplexers, and the internal circuits of the digital signal processing (DSP) cameras. Today, we can freely say that the majority of new installations, though still working with analog cameras, use digital video recorders for monitoring and long-term storage. Camera quality is an important starting point in the CCTV system video chain, but the quality of the recorded images and its intelligent processing have become equally important. In the interval since the first edition of this book (1996), there have been revolutionary developments in TV, multimedia, video, photography, and Rear View Mirror GPS DVR .

The majority of these developments are based on digital technology. One of the locomotives of the real new boom in Rearview Mirror has been the switch to digital video processing, transmission, and recording. This development gathered a real momentum in the last few years – hence the reason for a complete new edition of this book with extended discussions on digital, video compression, networking, and IP technology. Only a few years ago, the price of high-speed digital electronics capable of live video processing was unaffordable and uneconomical. Today, however, with the ever increasing performance and speed of memory chips, processors, and hard disks, as well as their decrease in price, digital video signal processing in real time is not only possible and more affordable, but it has become the only way to process a large number of high-quality video signals. Digital video was first introduced in the broadcasting industry in the early 1990s. As with any new technology it was initially very expensive and used rarely. Today digital video is the new standard, replacing the nearly half a century old analog video. It comes basically in two flavors – Standard Definition (SDTV) with the aspect ratio of 4:3 and the quality as we know it, and High Definition.

(HDTV) with the aspect ratio of 16:9 and around 5 times the number of pixels of SDTV. Many countries around the world are already broadcasting digital video, usually in both formats (SDTV and HDTV). Not surprisingly, the HDTV is going to be the preferred choice of the consumer market, owing to its much higher resolution and the theatrical experience one has watching movies, but since in the majority of CCTV today we use the standard definition resolution in this chapter, we will cover all the key features that refer to standard resolution video, with a 4:3 aspect ratio. Digital video recorders (DVRs) and IP cameras have now become the main reason for the new CCTV growth, a source of higher revenue and an inspiration for new and intelligent system design solutions that have blurred the line between computers, IT technology, networking, and Rearview Mirror DVR .

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .

Wireless Security Cameras for CCTV monitors

In a CCTV system the number of monitors can be quite large. It is very important to know how many Wireless Home Cameras can be used in a place without going overboard, as well as how to position them and what will be the correct viewing distance for the users. Even with one monitor in the system, operators should be aware of certain facts and recommendations, especially when they are spending the majority of their time in front of the monitors. Typically, for CCTV monitors, an optimum distance is around seven times the screen height. These recommendations are based on the practical resolution limits that the human eye has. The table on the next page shows recommendations only, and one should be flexible when applying these recommendations in various circumstances, especially in considering the flicker effect in control rooms with a large number of CRT monitors. With big systems, where perhaps a dozen monitors need to be mounted in front of the operator(s), viewing distances may vary.

It is a known fact that the vertical flicker is noticeable with the peripheral vision of the eye. In other words, if you have many monitors to view, the vertical refresh rate of the surrounding monitors is affecting your vision even though you may be watching a monitor directly in front of you with easy comfort. For this reason, some manufacturers are now coming up with 100 Hz monitors for CCTV (this is more critical with PAL and SECAM because of their lower vertical frequency). The 100 Hz monitors simply double up the 50 fields refresh rate, and the display looks rock steady. Sitting in front of such monitors for a longer period is a definite advantage, and I would suggest using such monitors where the display has to be of a bigger size. The bigger the monitor screen, the more noticeable the flicker. Another important consideration is the electrostatic radiation of larger monitors. Although this radiation is negligible, when the walls of monitors are in one room they may have a significant influence on the environment, as can usually be confirmed by the amount of dust collected by such a large number of GSM Security camera .

There is a low radiation standard accepted in the medical science called Rearview Mirror Navigation . This standard is also being accepted by some CCTV manufacturers and would clearly give an advantage to systems designed with such monitors. With large systems, visual display management is of vital importance. For example, not all monitors need to display images all the time. It may be much more effective if the operator is concentrating on one or two active monitors (usually larger sized) and the rest of them are blank. In case of activity, a blank monitor can be programmed to bring the image of a preprogrammed camera. In such a case, the operator’s attention is immediately drawn to the new image and the system becomes more efficient. As an additional bonus, the monitor’s lifetime will also be prolonged. Most of the video matrix switchers can be programmed to do such blanking and display alarmed cameras only when necessary.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .

Wireless Security Cameras for CCTV monitors

In a CCTV system the number of monitors can be quite large. It is very important to know how many Wireless Home Cameras can be used in a place without going overboard, as well as how to position them and what will be the correct viewing distance for the users. Even with one monitor in the system, operators should be aware of certain facts and recommendations, especially when they are spending the majority of their time in front of the monitors. Typically, for CCTV monitors, an optimum distance is around seven times the screen height. These recommendations are based on the practical resolution limits that the human eye has. The table on the next page shows recommendations only, and one should be flexible when applying these recommendations in various circumstances, especially in considering the flicker effect in control rooms with a large number of CRT monitors. With big systems, where perhaps a dozen monitors need to be mounted in front of the operator(s), viewing distances may vary.

It is a known fact that the vertical flicker is noticeable with the peripheral vision of the eye. In other words, if you have many monitors to view, the vertical refresh rate of the surrounding monitors is affecting your vision even though you may be watching a monitor directly in front of you with easy comfort. For this reason, some manufacturers are now coming up with 100 Hz monitors for CCTV (this is more critical with PAL and SECAM because of their lower vertical frequency). The 100 Hz monitors simply double up the 50 fields refresh rate, and the display looks rock steady. Sitting in front of such monitors for a longer period is a definite advantage, and I would suggest using such monitors where the display has to be of a bigger size. The bigger the monitor screen, the more noticeable the flicker. Another important consideration is the electrostatic radiation of larger monitors. Although this radiation is negligible, when the walls of monitors are in one room they may have a significant influence on the environment, as can usually be confirmed by the amount of dust collected by such a large number of GSM Security camera .

There is a low radiation standard accepted in the medical science called Rearview Mirror Navigation . This standard is also being accepted by some CCTV manufacturers and would clearly give an advantage to systems designed with such monitors. With large systems, visual display management is of vital importance. For example, not all monitors need to display images all the time. It may be much more effective if the operator is concentrating on one or two active monitors (usually larger sized) and the rest of them are blank. In case of activity, a blank monitor can be programmed to bring the image of a preprogrammed camera. In such a case, the operator’s attention is immediately drawn to the new image and the system becomes more efficient. As an additional bonus, the monitor’s lifetime will also be prolonged. Most of the video matrix switchers can be programmed to do such blanking and display alarmed cameras only when necessary.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .